By using residuals such as lignin (a by-product of bioethanol production), construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and reclaimed asphalt (RAP) the costs of new road pavings can be reduced considerably: from 17% in Spain, 22% in Poland and 24% in the UK.
Lignin substitutes up to 10% of the bitumen used in the surface layer. The application of 2.5-5% of bio flux agent allows usage of up to 30% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in base and binder layers, 100% substitution of virgin aggregates with construction and demolition waste leads to a reduction in consumption of natural aggregates. The results indicate that 1 m2 of APSE pavement requires 58-66% less natural aggregates, comparing to the conventional pavement.
The application of the lignin modified bitumen in the surface layers allows to reduce costs by up to 5.6%, compared to the conventional pavement. In total, the cost-effectiveness of flexible APSE pavement in construction stage is the following: in Spain it is 9%, whereas in Poland it is 22% and in the UK it is 24%. The cost-effectiveness of semi-rigid APSE pavement is estimated to be 17% in Spain and 22% in the UK and Poland.